466 HISTORY OF PERSIA state of Kalat, and lastly of Persia itself, to fix a definite boundary, and negotiations were opened with this object. These culminated in an agreement for a joint commission by Great Britain, Persia, and Kalat; but owing to the per- sistent obstructiveness of the Persian Commissioner and the hostility of Ibrahim Khan, little or no progress was made. General Goldsmid ultimately marched to Gwadur, where he was joined by Major Lovett, who had made a survey of the proposed frontier line, and was able to com- plete the information previously collected. The British Commissioner then gave his decision, delimiting the boundary from a point east of Guattar (which must not be confused with Gwadur) up to Kuhak. After some demur the Shah accepted this line, which was favourable to Persian claims ; and General Goldsmid was encouraged by the signal compliment to attempt a still more difficult task. The Sis fan Question. The First Phase, 18 63-18 70.—One of the most important questions which confronted the British Government after the signature of the Treaty of Paris was that of Sistan. This delta province was originally Persian, but it was annexed by Ahmad Shah and formed part of his successor's empire. In the internal struggles for power which subsequently, distracted Afghanistan it became attached alternately to Kandahar and Herat, Yar Mohamed Khan holding it tributary during most of his lifetime. After his death the Government of the Shah began to make good its claims on its lost provinces. Ali Khan, the chief of the Sarbandi,1 gave his adherence to Persia, and was honoured with the hand of a Persian princess in marriage. This occurred about 1857, and during the reign of Dost Mohamed both Ali Khan and his successor, Taj Mohamed, acknowledged the supremacy of Persia. The Shah, during the years 1861-63, repeatedly invited the British Government to intervene to protect Sistan against Afghan aggression. The answer he received was that, as the British Government did not recognize the 1 The Sarbandis were ancient inhabitants of Sistan. Carried off to Bunijird by Tamerlane, they were brought back by Nadir Shah.